Copy-Paste Imputation (CPI) for Energy Time Series

This project provides a Python implementation of an imputation method for energy time series. The CPI method copies data blocks with similar characteristics and pastes them into gaps of the time series while preserving the total energy of each gap.

11 commits | Last commit 17 months ago

Cite this software

What Copy-Paste Imputation (CPI) for Energy Time Series can do for you

This repository contains the Python implementation of the Copy-Paste Imputation (CPI) method presented in the following paper:

M. Weber, M. Turowski, H. K. Çakmak, R. Mikut, U. Kühnapfel and V. Hagenmeyer, 2021, "Data-Driven Copy-Paste Imputation for Energy Time Series," in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 12, 6, pp. 5409–5419, doi: 10.1109/TSG.2021.3101831.


To install this project, perform the following steps:

  1. Clone the project
  2. Open a terminal of the virtual environment where you want to use the project
  3. cd into the cloned directory
  4. pip install . or pip install -e . to install the project editable.
    • Use pip install -e .[dev] to install with development dependencies


from cpiets.cpi import CopyPasteImputation
import pandas as pd

cpi = CopyPasteImputation()
data = pd.read_csv('data.csv')
result = cpi.impute()

Input Data Requirements

Example data:

2012-01-02 00:15:0011.60
2012-01-02 00:30:0024.87
2012-01-02 00:45:0037.31

The names of the columns are arbitrary.


  • There are no missing values (nan) at the start or end of the time series.
  • A day starts with the first value after 0:00 (0:15 in the example above) and ends with 0:00.
  • The time series starts at the beginning of a day and ends at the end of a day.

Supported time formats:

  • %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S (2020-01-17 13:37:42)
  • %d-%b-%Y %H:%M:%S (17-Jan-2020 13:37:42)


In this repository, we included example data derived from the ElectricityLoadDiagrams20112014 data set.

To run the CPI method with simple test data, you can run the example

python example/

and play around with the parameters.


This project is supported by the Helmholtz Association under the Joint Initiative "Energy System 2050 - A Contribution of the Research Field Energy".


This code is licensed under the LGPL-3.0 License.

Programming language
  • Python 100%
  • LGPL-3.0-or-later
</>Source code

Participating organisations

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

Reference papers