Global Benchmark Database (GBD)

GBD is a comprehensive suite of tools for provisioning and sustainably maintaining benchmark instances and their metadata for empirical research on hard algorithmic problem classes.


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What Global Benchmark Database (GBD) can do for you

GBD contributes data to your algorithmic evaluations.

GBD provides benchmark instance identifiers, feature extractors, and instance transformers for hard algorithmic problem domains, now including propositional satisfiability (SAT) and optimization (MaxSAT), and pseudo-Boolean optimization (PBO).

GBD solves several problems

  • benchmark instance identification
  • identification of equivalence classes of benchmark instances
  • distribution of benchmark instances and benchmark metadata
  • initialization and maintenance of instance feature databases
  • transformation algorithms for benchmark instances

GBD provides an extensible set of problem domains, feature extractors, and instance transformers.
For a description of those currently supported, see the GBDC documentation.
GBDC is a Python extension module for GBD's performance-critical code (written in C++), maintained in a separate repository.

Installation and Configuration

  • Run pip install gbd-tools
  • Run pip install gbdc (optional, installation of extension module gbdc)
  • Obtain a GBD database, e.g. download
  • Configure your environment by registering paths to databases like this export GBD_DB=[path/to/database1]:[path/to/database2:..].
  • Test the command line interface with the gbd info and gbd --help commands.

GBD Interfaces

GBD Command-Line Interface

Central commands in gbd are those for data access gbd get and database initialization gbd init. See gbd --help for more commands. Once a database is registered in the environment variable GBD_DB, the gbd get command can be used to access data. See gbd get --help for more information. gbd init provides access to registered feature extractors, such as those provided by the gdbc extension module. All initialization routines can be run in parallel, and resource limits can be set per process. See gbd init --help for more information.

GBD Server

The GBD server can be started locally with gbd serve. Our instance of the GBD server is hosted at You can download benchmark instances and prebuilt feature databases from there.

GBD Python Interface

The GBD Python interface is used by all programs in the GBD ecosystem. Important here is the query command, which returns GBD data in the form of a Pandas dataframe for further analysis, as shown in the following example.

from gbd_core.api import GBD
with GBD(['path/to/database1', 'path/to/database2', ..] as gbd:
    df = gbd.query("family = hardware-bmc", resolve=['verified-result', 'runtime-kissat'])
Logo of Global Benchmark Database (GBD)
Programming languages
  • Python 88%
  • JavaScript 7%
  • HTML 4%
  • CSS 1%
  • Shell 1%
  • MIT
</>Source code

Participating organisations

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
University of Helsinki

Reference papers



Many thanks [for] GBD - a benchmark database which makes instance-specific analyses in SAT research possible for a newcomer without despairing.
Dominik Schreiber in his Award-winning Dissertation:


Principal Developer
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Christoph Jabs
Fahri Taban

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